YY-Technology vs. testosterone


Each year tons of testosterone are used in the tilapia industry worldwide. This is a massive quantity of hormones for animal production in a modern society where sustainability, food-safety and environment have top-priority.....





Modern YY-Technology uses the natural capacities of tilapia and genetic selection to produce all-male tilapia fry without the use of any hormones: Natural Male Tilapia (NMT™)! After 12 years of selective breeding we are now ready for the future with our 99% male-ratio in our Til-Aqua Silver strain (Oreochromis niloticus - Wildtype) with an excellent performance under a wide range of conditions.


Easy and more effective!


Contact via: info@til-aqua.com

MALE RATIO

YY-Technology

Silver NMT = 99%

Red NMT = 96%

Testosterone

65-95%

Remark

Results with testosterone variable; depending among others on skills and environment. First feeding does not take place on day 0 for all fry which decreases efficiency as well.

HANDLING

YY-Technology

Once sexed and stocked: 
- harvesting

Testosterone

Once sexed and stocked: 

- harvesting 

- hormone feeding for 3 weeks

Remark

The three weeks of hormone feeding apply to each new batch that has been harvested. 

FEED

YY-Technology

Optimal sizes of feed can be fed from the first day of feeding. No problem if feeding needs to be interrupted for a day.

Testosterone

One batch of feed is prepared to be applied for three weeks. This single size is often very fine (dust-like) as it is ground feed; this is not optimal for larger fish. Feeding needs to be continuous in order to complete hormone treatment.

Remark

The ground feed commonly originates from a feed that is intended for on-growing. However, this type of feed does not meet the requirements of a developing fry, especially since it is often already a poor feed in itself. 

During this critical period of phyical development, optimal quality feed is required!

IMMUNE SYSTEM

YY-Technology

No negative effects.

Testosterone

Testosterone negatively affects the development of the immune system of the fry. 

Remark

Testosterone has a direct negative effect on the immune system and in particular on the mucus (skin-defense); creating free access for para-sites, mold and bacteria. This decreased development of the immune system will obviously affect performance and mortality in later stages of life.

MORTALITY

YY-Technology

Practically no mortality:
only culling to select best fish.

Testosterone

Up to 75% mortality:

Mainly in the phase of swim-up fry until 5 grams.

Remark

High mortality accepted when using hormones. Additional fry intake or additional broodstock required.

GENOTYPES: ESCAPEES OR RESTOCKING

YY-Technology

Phenotypical males are always genotypical males (XY) 

= Natural Male Tilapia

Testosterone

These phenotypical males can be genotypical males (XY) but also genotypical females (XX).

Remark

Genotypical females (XX), that have become phenotypical males after hormone treatment, produce male gametes (sperm) and as such can reproduce with natural females (also XX) that produce eggs. This result is all-female offspring in nature causing an sex-unbalance in the ecosystem

HUMAN WELFARE

YY-Technology

No negative effects.

Testosterone

No negative effects scientifically proven but serious doubts. Employees in contact with feed/testosterone.

Remark

Serious doubts about the effects of testosterone on vital organs, muscles and libido.


LEGAL PROCEDURES AND CONTROL

YY-Technology

Not necessary.

Testosterone

In most countries it is forbidden to use hormones. However, often a blind eye is turned.

Remark

Commonly, testosterone is administrated to the feed by employees that spray the hormone on the feed, without any protection. Daily, these employees are in contact with testosterone often with lacking procedures to follow, and no regulation or control

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